Chapter 5: Finally, Some UI To Play With



Now that we’ve created our new model and its corresponding access rights, it is time to interact with the user interface.

At the end of this chapter, we will have created a couple of menus in order to access a default list and form view.

Data Files (XML) 数据文件(XML)

Reference: the documentation related to this topic can be found in Data Files.

In Chapter 4: Security – A Brief Introduction, we added data through a CSV file. The CSV format is convenient when the data to load has a simple format. When the format is more complex (e.g. load the structure of a view or an email template), we use the XML format. For example, this help field contains HTML tags. While it would be possible to load such data through a CSV file, it is more convenient to use an XML file.

The XML files must be added to the same folders as the CSV files and defined similarly in the The content of the data files is also sequentially loaded when a module is installed or updated, therefore all remarks made for CSV files hold true for XML files. When the data is linked to views, we add them to the views folder.

In this chapter, we will load our first action and menus through an XML file. Actions and menus are standard records in the database.


When performance is important, the CSV format is preferred over the XML format. This is the case in Odoo where loading a CSV file is faster than loading an XML file.

In Odoo, the user interface (actions, menus and views) is largely defined by creating and composing records defined in an XML file. A common pattern is Menu > Action > View. To access records the user navigates through several menu levels; the deepest level is an action which triggers the opening of a list of the records.

Actions 动作

Reference: the documentation related to this topic can be found in Actions.


Goal: at the end of this section, an action should be loaded in the system. We won’t see anything yet in the UI, but the file should be loaded in the log:

INFO rd-demo odoo.modules.loading: loading estate/views/estate_property_views.xml

Actions can be triggered in three ways: 动作可以通过以下三种方式触发:

  1. by clicking on menu items (linked to specific actions)
  2. by clicking on buttons in views (if these are connected to actions)
  3. as contextual actions on object

We will only cover the first case in this chapter. The second case will be covered in a later chapter while the last is the focus of an advanced topic. In our Real Estate example, we would like to link a menu to the model, so we are able to create a new record. The action can be viewed as the link between the menu and the model.

A basic action for our test_model is: 我们的test_model的基本动作如下:

<record id="test_model_action" model="ir.actions.act_window">
<field name="name">Test action</field>
<field name="res_model">test_model</field>
<field name="view_mode">tree,form</field>
  • id is an external identifier. It can be used to refer to the record (without knowing its in-database identifier).
    id 是一个外部标识符,可以用来引用记录(而不必知道其在数据库中的实际标识符)。
  • model has a fixed value of ir.actions.act_window (Window Actions (ir.actions.act_window)).
    model 的值固定为ir.actions.act_window,表示这是一个窗口动作记录。
  • name is the name of the action. name 表示动作的名称。
  • res_model is the model which the action applies to.
    res_model 指明动作作用于哪个模型。
  • view_mode are the views that will be available; in this case they are the list (tree) and form views. We’ll see later that there can be other view modes.
    view_mode 定义了可用的视图模式,在这个例子中是列表视图(tree)和表单视图。稍后我们会了解到还有其他视图模式。

Examples can be found everywhere in Odoo, but this is a good example of a simple action. Pay attention to the structure of the XML data file since you will need it in the following exercise.


Add an action. 添加一个动作。

Create the estate_property_views.xml file in the appropriate folder and define it in the file.

Create an action for the model

Restart the server and you should see the file loaded in the log.

Menus 菜单项

Reference: the documentation related to this topic can be found in Shortcuts.


Goal: at the end of this section, three menus should be created and the default view is displayed:

To reduce the complexity in declaring a menu ( and connecting it to the corresponding action, we can use the <menuitem> shortcut .
为了简化声明菜单(及将其与相应操作关联的过程,我们可以使用 <menuitem> 快捷方式。

A basic menu for our test_model_action is:

<menuitem id="test_model_menu_action" action="test_model_action"/>

The menu test_model_menu_action is linked to the action test_model_action, and the action is linked to the model test_model. As previously mentioned, the action can be seen as the link between the menu and the model.

However, menus always follow an architecture, and in practice there are three levels of menus:

  1. The root menu, which is displayed in the App switcher (the Odoo Community App switcher is a dropdown menu)
  2. The first level menu, displayed in the top bar
  3. The action menus 动作菜单:与具体操作相关的菜单。

The easiest way to define the structure is to create it in the XML file. A basic structure for our test_model_action is:

<menuitem id="test_menu_root" name="Test">
<menuitem id="test_first_level_menu" name="First Level">
<menuitem id="test_model_menu_action" action="test_model_action"/>

The name for the third menu is taken from the name of the action.


Add menus. 添加菜单

Create the estate_menus.xml file in the appropriate folder and define it in the file. Remember the sequential loading of the data files 😉
在相应的文件夹中创建estate_menus.xml文件,并在__manifest__.py文件中定义它。别忘了数据文件是按顺序加载的哦 😉

Create the three levels of menus for the action created in the previous exercise. Refer to the Goal of this section for the expected result.

Restart the server and refresh the browser1. You should now see the menus, and you’ll even be able to create your first real estate property advertisement!

Fields, Attributes And View


Goal: at the end of this section, the selling price should be read-only and the number of bedrooms and the availability date should have default values. Additionally the selling price and availability date values won’t be copied when the record is duplicated.
目标: 在本节结束时,销售价格应设置为只读状态,卧室数量和可获取日期应具有默认值。此外,当记录被复制时,销售价格和可获取日期的值不应被复制。

The reserved fields active and state are added to the model.

So far we have only used the generic view for our real estate property advertisements, but in most cases we want to fine tune the view. There are many fine-tunings possible in Odoo, but usually the first step is to make sure that:

  • some fields have a default value 某些字段具有默认值
  • some fields are read-only 某些字段为只读
  • some fields are not copied when duplicating the record 某些字段在复制记录时不被复制

In our real estate business case, we would like the following:

  • The selling price should be read-only (it will be automatically filled in later)
  • The availability date and the selling price should not be copied when duplicating a record
  • The default number of bedrooms should be 2
  • The default availability date should be in 3 months

Some New Attributes 一些新属性

Before moving further with the view design, let’s step back to our model definition. We saw that some attributes, such as required=True, impact the table schema in the database. Other attributes will impact the view or provide default values.


Add new attributes to the fields. 向字段添加新属性。

Find the appropriate attributes (see Field) to:

  • set the selling price as read-only 将销售价格设置为只读
  • prevent copying of the availability date and the selling price values

Restart the server and refresh the browser. You should not be able to set any selling prices. When duplicating a record, the availability date should be empty.

Default Values 默认值

Any field can be given a default value. In the field definition, add the option default=X where X is either a Python literal value (boolean, integer, float, string) or a function taking a model and returning a value:

name = fields.Char(default="Unknown")
last_seen = fields.Datetime("Last Seen",

The name field will have the value ‘Unknown’ by default while the last_seen field will be set as the current time.


Set default values. 设置默认值

Add the appropriate default attributes so that:

  • the default number of bedrooms is 2 卧室数量的默认值为2
  • the default availability date is in 3 months 可获取日期的默认值为3个月后

Tip: this might help you: today() 提示:这个函数可能会对你有帮助:today()

Check that the default values are set as expected.

Reserved Fields 保留字段

Reference: the documentation related to this topic can be found in Reserved Field names.

A few field names are reserved for pre-defined behaviors. They should be defined on a model when the related behavior is desired.


Add active field. 添加active字段。

Add the active field to the model.

Restart the server, create a new property, then come back to the list view… The property will not be listed! active is an example of a reserved field with a specific behavior: when a record has active=False, it is automatically removed from any search. To display the created property, you will need to specifically search for inactive records.


Set a default value for active field. 为active字段设置默认值。

Set the appropriate default value for the active field so it doesn’t disappear anymore.

Note that the default active=False value was assigned to all existing records.


Add state field. 添加state字段。

Add a state field to the model. Five values are possible: New, Offer Received, Offer Accepted, Sold and Canceled. It must be required, should not be copied and should have its default value set to ‘New’.
estate.property模型中添加一个state字段。可能的五个值为:新(New)、收到报价(Offer Received)、接受报价(Offer Accepted)、已售(Sold)和已取消(Canceled)。此字段必须是必填项,不应在复制记录时被复制,并且其默认值应设置为“新(New)”。

Make sure to use the correct type! 确保使用正确的类型!

The state will be used later on for several UI enhancements.

Now that we are able to interact with the UI thanks to the default views, the next step is obvious: we want to define our own views.

1.A refresh is needed since the web client keeps a cache of the various menus and views for performance reasons.



您的电子邮箱地址不会被公开。 必填项已用 * 标注