Chapter 6: Basic Views 第六章:基础视图



We have seen in the previous chapter that Odoo is able to generate default views for a given model. In practice, the default view is never acceptable for a business application. Instead, we should at least organize the various fields in a logical manner.

Views are defined in XML files with actions and menus. They are instances of the ir.ui.view model.

In our real estate module, we need to organize the fields in a logical way:

  • in the list (tree) view, we want to display more than just the name.
  • in the form view, the fields should be grouped.
  • in the search view, we must be able to search on more than just the name. Specifically, we want a filter for the ‘Available’ properties and a shortcut to group by postcode.

List 列表

Reference: the documentation related to this topic can be found in List.


Goal: at the end of this section, the list view should look like this:
目标:在本节结束时,列表视图应如下所示:List view

List views, also called tree views, display records in a tabular form.

Their root element is <tree>. The most basic version of this view simply lists all the fields to display in the table (where each field is a column):
其根元素为 <tree>。该视图最基本的形式是简单列出表格中要显示的所有字段(每个字段代表一列):

<tree string="Tests">
    <field name="name"/>
    <field name="last_seen"/>

A simple example can be found here. 一个简单的示例可以在这里找到


Add a custom list view. 添加自定义列表视图。

Define a list view for the model in the appropriate XML file. Check the Goal of this section for the fields to display.
在适当的XML文件中为 模型定义一个列表视图。根据本节目标检查需要显示的字段。

Tips: 提示:

  • do not add the editable="bottom" attribute that you can find in the example above. We’ll come back to it later.
    不要添加在上述示例中看到的 editable="bottom" 属性,我们将在后面章节再讨论它。
  • some field labels may need to be adapted to match the reference.

As always, you need to restart the server (do not forget the -u option) and refresh the browser to see the result.
一如既往,你需要重启服务器(别忘了使用 -u 选项)并刷新浏览器以查看结果。


You will probably use some copy-paste in this chapter, therefore always make sure that the id remains unique for each view!

Form 表单

Reference: the documentation related to this topic can be found in Form.


Goal: at the end of this section, the form view should look like this:
目标:在本节结束时,表单视图应如下所示:Form view

Forms are used to create and edit single records.

Their root element is <form>. They are composed of high-level structure elements (groups and notebooks) and interactive elements (buttons and fields):
其根元素是 <form>。它们由高级结构元素(如组和笔记本)和交互元素(如按钮和字段)组成:

<form string="Test">
                <field name="name"/>
                <field name="last_seen"/>
            <page string="Description">
                <field name="description"/>

It is possible to use regular HTML tags such as div and h1 as well as the the class attribute (Odoo provides some built-in classes) to fine-tune the look.
除了这些结构外,还可以使用常规的HTML标签(如 divh1)以及 class 属性(Odoo提供了一些内置的类)来微调外观。

A simple example can be found here. 一个简单的示例可以在这里找到。


Add a custom form view. 添加自定义表单视图

Define a form view for the model in the appropriate XML file. Check the Goal of this section for the expected final design of the page.
在适当的XML文件中为 模型定义一个表单视图。根据本节目标检查页面预期的最终设计。

This might require some trial and error before you get to the expected result 😉 It is advised that you add the fields and the tags one at a time to help understand how it works.
达到期望结果可能需要一些尝试和错误;-) 建议你逐一添加字段和标签,以便更好地理解其工作原理。

In order to avoid relaunching the server every time you do a modification to the view, it can be convenient to use the --dev xml parameter when launching the server:
为了避免每次修改视图后都重新启动服务器,启动服务器时可以方便地使用 --dev xml 参数:

$ ./odoo-bin --addons-path=addons,../enterprise/,../tutorials/ -d rd-demo -u estate --dev xml

This parameter allows you to just refresh the page to view your view modifications.

Search 搜索

Reference: the documentation related to this topic can be found in Search.


Goal: at the end of this section, the search view should look like this:
目标:在本节结束时,搜索视图应如下所示:Search fieldsFilterGroup By

Search views are slightly different from the list and form views since they don’t display content. Although they apply to a specific model, they are used to filter other views’ content (generally aggregated views such as List). Beyond the difference in use case, they are defined the same way.

Their root element is <search>. The most basic version of this view simply lists all the fields for which a shortcut is desired:

<search string="Tests">
    <field name="name"/>
    <field name="last_seen"/>

The default search view generated by Odoo provides a shortcut to filter by name. It is very common to add the fields which the user is likely to filter on in a customized search view.


Add a custom search view. 添加自定义搜索视图。

Define a search view for the model in the appropriate XML file. Check the first image of this section’s Goal for the list of fields.

After restarting the server, it should be possible to filter on the given fields.

Search views can also contain <filter> elements, which act as toggles for predefined searches. Filters must have one of the following attributes:

  • domain: adds the given domain to the current search
  • context: adds some context to the current search; uses the key group_by to group results on the given field name
    为当前搜索添加一些上下文;使用key group_by按给定的字段名对结果进行分组

A simple example can be found here. 一个简单的示例可以在这里找到。

Before going further in the exercise, it is necessary to introduce the ‘domain’ concept.

Domains 域

Reference: the documentation related to this topic can be found in Search domains.

In Odoo, a domain encodes conditions on records: a domain is a list of criteria used to select a subset of a model’s records. Each criterion is a triplet with a field name, an operator and a value. A record satisfies a criterion if the specified field meets the condition of the operator applied to the value.

For instance, when used on the Product model the following domain selects all services with a unit price greater than 1000:

[('product_type', '=', 'service'), ('unit_price', '>', 1000)]

By default criteria are combined with an implicit AND, meaning every criterion needs to be satisfied for a record to match a domain. The logical operators & (AND), | (OR) and ! (NOT) can be used to explicitly combine criteria. They are used in prefix position (the operator is inserted before its arguments rather than between). For instance, to select products ‘which are services OR have a unit price which is NOT between 1000 and 2000’:

    ('product_type', '=', 'service'),
    '!', '&',
        ('unit_price', '>=', 1000),
        ('unit_price', '<', 2000)]


XML does not allow < and & to be used inside XML elements. To avoid parsing errors, entity references should be used: &lt; for < and &amp; for &. Other entity references (&gt;&apos; & &quot;) are optional.
XML不允许在元素内部直接使用< 和 & 符号。为了避免解析错误,应使用实体引用:< 代替 <,& 代替 &。其他实体引用(>、’、”)是可选的。


<filter name="negative" domain="[('test_val', '&lt;', 0)]"/>


Add filter and Group By. 添加过滤器和分组依据。

The following should be added to the previously created search view:

  • a filter which displays available properties, i.e. the state should be ‘New’ or ‘Offer Received’.
  • the ability to group results by postcode. 按邮政编码对结果进行分组的能力。

Looking good? At this point we are already able to create models and design a user interface which makes sense business-wise. However, a key component is still missing: the link between models.



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